new radio (5G) (NR)
5G New Radio ( NR) is the standard developed by 3GPP for a wireless backbone for 5th generation (5G) mobile communications technology. The basis of 5G New Radio (5G NR) was created by 5G Release 15. In the initial phase, 5G NR will be deployed over existing LTE networks, adding small radio cells to mobile coverage and improving mobile broadband in data rates, connection density and latency.
The technical objectives of 5G New Radio (NR).
As far as the objectives of New Radio (NR) are concerned, the aim is to achieve extremely high data rates in the multi- gigabit range up to 10 Gbit/s, and to increase the connection density in cities. This is to reach 1 million mobile devices per square kilometer; and it is about response times and the shortest possible latency. These can be reduced to 1 ms by direct communication between individual end devices, thus meeting the requirements for Ultra Low Latency( ULL). The high data rates are realized by Enhanced Mobile Broadband( eMBB), the connection density by Massive Machine-Type Communication( mMTC) and the low latency by Ultra-High Reliability and Low Latency Communication( uRLLC).
5G New Radio operates in the frequency range between 700 MHz and 70 GHz. Different New Radio frequencies are used depending on the application and reception conditions. Since frequency propagation and free- space attenuation are extremely variable in this wide frequency range, the 5G frequencies between 700 MHz and 70 GHz have been divided into three frequency bands: Low bands in the sub-GHz range below 1 GHz, Mid bands between 1 GHz and 6 GHz, and High bands above 26 GHz. The individual new-radio frequencies have different bandwidths and channel widths.
The central component of 5G NR is the radio interface. It was specified by the Wireless World Initiative (WWI) and is called WINNER. 5G NR is expected to efficiently combine all three frequency bands around 700 MHz, 3 GHz and 26 GHz and access technologies.
In terms of transmission and reception, New Radio uses the most advanced techniques. These include Massive MIMO with over a hundred MIMO antennas, scalable OFDM, SOFDMA, data coding with Low Density Parity Check( LDPC), and advanced microwave technology.
The development phases of New Radio
There are two development phases for 5G New Radio concepts: 5G Non-Standalone( 5G NSA) and 5G Standalone(5G SA). Non-Standalone forms a transition technology that uses Long Term Evolution (LTE) infrastructure and deploys 5G New Radio (NR) technology at the user level. The existing LTE infrastructure connects the LTE Evolved Packet Core( EPC) to the User Equipment ( UE) via the control plane of the LTE access technology, LTE RAN.
In contrast, in addition to the LTE control plane, there is another control plane and a user plane connecting the 5G Next Generation Core (5G NGC) to the subscriber equipment via the radio access network of 5G New Radio (5G NR RAN).
Areas of application for New Radio
For 5G NR, the focus is on mobility. These are short-range applications in automotive technology, such as Vehicle to Everything( V2X), in machine-to-machine communication with Machine-Type Communication( MTC), and in the Internet of Things( IoT) environment. Due to the millimeter waves, larger bandwidths and significantly higher data rates can be realized compared to 4th generation( 4G) mobile radio concepts. Another area of application is broadband wireless Internet access, Broadband Fixed Wireless Access ( BFWA).