powerline communication (access area) (PLC)
Powerline Communication(PLC), also known as Digital Powerline (DPL), is a technology with which voice, data, audio and video can be transmitted via the power grid. This technology can be used in-house for home networks as an alternative to WLANs, in the connection area to bridge the last mile, and in smart grids. The Powerline network consists of the power network for the connection area, which extends to the transformer station for the low- voltage area, and the in-house area up to the power outlets. Powerline can be used to create interactive access to telecommunications services.
Data transmission via energy networks
The prerequisites for the use of energy distribution networks for telecommunications require knowledge of the transmission parameters. In addition to the parameters of the transmission channel, such as the input and output impedance, the frequency range, the impedance impedance points must be mentioned in the form of building distributors, branches, fuse boxes and sockets, which have a not inconsiderable influence on the transmission behavior. In addition, the interference behavior caused by switching devices on and off significantly impairs message transport via a power distribution network. For the reasons mentioned, Powerline can only be used for distances of 300 meters; with Power Network Repeaters (PNR), the distance increases to 500 meters.
Studies have shown that power distribution networks can be used up to cut-off frequencies of 30 MHz and, depending on the transmission power, distances of several hundred meters can be bridged at the low-voltage level.
Since the low-voltage level has a tree topology, all active users must share the bandwidth. Assuming a few hundred households, the speed that can actually be achieved is in the range of analog modems and is therefore out of the question for use as an interactive distribution service. Corresponding applications occur, for example, in smart metering in smart grids and are implemented via narrowband powerline( NB-PLC).
Modulation methods in Powerline
In terms of transmission technology, powerline transmission uses various modulation methods in the frequency bands standardized by the Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique( CENELEC). The data rates for powerline transmissions in the CENELEC bands range from a few hundred kilobits per second to a few megabits; with broadband powerline( BPL), data rates of 200 Mbit/s and even 500 Mbit/s are achieved in the in-house area.
A number of standardization bodies have taken up the subject of powerline, including the IEEE, which adopted the IEEE 1901 standard at the end of 2010 under the name "Standard for Broadband over Powerline Networks". In addition, HomePlug, CEPCA (Consumer Electronic Powerline Communication Alliance) and OPERA (Open PLC European Research Alliance) as well as the globally operating Universal Powerline Association( UPA) are concerned with powerline standards in home networks.