Texture mapping is a computer graphics technique for projecting textures onto flat and arbitrarily curved bodies. In texture mapping, the body can assume any angularity with respect to its position and orientation. In addition, the mapping can also be done from any perspective.
Technically, texture mapping is similar to Gouraud shading, since the vertices of the individual polygons also serve as coordinate points in texture mapping, and a linear interpolation of the texture is performed over each individual polygon. The addressing and filtering of the textures is done by the Texture Mapping Unit (TMU), which works together with pixel shaders and vertex shaders. The task of TMUs is to apply texture operations to pixels.
Texture mapping allows a static or dynamic texture, such as an animation, to be projected onto any surface or arbitrarily shaped body. The body can thus be represented by desired materials with special surface texture. This method is used in computer graphics and is used to quickly display surface textures, taking into account the object distance. In contrast to texture mapping, bump mapping, which is comparable, projects the surface texture onto a polygon.