lightning protection system (LPS)
Lightning protection systems (LSP) discharge the overvoltages generated by lightning and thus ensure complete lightning protection compensation. They are designed in such a way that lightning strikes do not cause any damage to persons, buildings, installations or equipment.
According to the requirements, lightning protection systems are divided into several lightning protection zones( LZ) and lightning protection classes. As far as lightning protection zones are concerned, a distinction is made between the outer and inner lightning protection zones. And the lightning protection classes are about catching and diverting lightning.
The outer lightning protection conducts a captured lightning electromagnetic pulse( LEMP) towards the earth. It is placed around the outside of the building and acts like a Faraday cage. The external lightning protection system consists of the lightning arrestor, the lightning rod and the grounding system. The air-termination rods are installed at the highest points of the building. The struck lightning is discharged to the ground through the lightning rod and the grounding system.
The inner lightning protection ensures that no flashover from the induced overvoltages occurs on conductive parts of the building, on household appliances, telephone systems and antenna systems or heating systems and damages or destroys them. To prevent this, potential equalization is created between the external and internal lightning protection. The inner lightning protection includes the distribution box and ends in front of the electrical and electronic equipment.
The individual lightning protection zones are created by shielding the buildings, rooms and equipment. There are defined transitions between the individual lightning protection zones. For example, the transition between the outer and second protection zones is defined by the fact that all lines coming from the field side are included in the lightning protection equipotential bonding. At each further transition, local equipotential bonding is performed at which all lines and installations passing through this transition are included.
The guidelines for lightning protection systems are specified in the European standardEN 62305, corresponding to DIN 0185-305 of 2005.