electromagnetic pulse (EMP)
Electromagnetic pulses(EMP) are electromagnetic interference fields triggered by high-energy discharges such as nuclear explosions.
The interference fields have enormous field strengths and can permanently disrupt and damage communications equipment and communications terminals. For example, public transmission networks, satellite links, switching equipment and computers.
An electromagnetic pulse generated by a nuclear explosion consists of a continuous frequency spectrum. Most of the energy is emitted in the frequency range between 3 Hz and 30 kHz.
Depending on the altitude at which the electromagnetic pulses are generated, a distinction is made between Low-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulses (LAEMP) and High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulses (HAEMP). The former occur near the ground, at altitudes up to about 2,000 m, the latter occur at altitudes up to 10,000, and in the case of nuclear explosions even at altitudes up to 40 km. The EMP pulse in the source zone of the nuclear explosion is called Source Region Electromagnetic Pulse (SREMP).