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lead battery

The lead-acid battery is the classic battery used primarily in automotive technology. A lead-acid battery consists of several battery cells, each of which consists of the positive electrode formed by lead dioxide (PbO2), the negative lead electrode(Pb) and the electrolyte.

Classical lead-acid batteries use diluted sulfuric acid as the electrolyte, hence the name lead-acid battery. To increase the electrode area, they have a grid-like structure. Lead-acid batteries are charged in the first charging phase with constant current, and after a certain state of charge has been reached, further charging takes place with constant voltage. Their power density is between 250 W/kg and 500 W/kg, and their energy density is about 50 Wh/kg, which is considerably lower than the energy density of lithium-ion batteries.

Structure of the lead-acid battery

Structure of the lead-acid battery

Lead-acid batteries can be loaded with high current draw for short periods of time. Because of their relatively heavy weight and low self-discharge rate, which is between 1% and 3% per month, lead-acid batteries are also used in alarm systems, UPS systems and stationary transmitting and receiving equipment. The nominal voltage of lead-acid cells is 2.1 V when fully charged, their final discharge voltage is 1.75 V, their final charge voltage is 2.4 V, their nominal capacity is several hundred ampere-hours( Ah), and the number of charge cycles, which depends on temperature and design, can be up to 3,000.

Lead-acid batteries, photo: Pangoo

Lead-acid batteries, photo: Pangoo

The further development of lead batteries has led to encapsulated designs in which degassing takes place via a pressure valve and in which the liquid sulfuric acid is bound. This design is called Valve Regulated Lead Acid( VRLA). There are two different VRLA designs: the Absorbent Glass Mat( AGM), in which a glass fiber fleece is impregnated with the sulfuric acid, and the gel battery, in which the acid is bound in a gel.

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Englisch: lead battery
Updated at: 20.10.2020
#Words: 299
Links: lead, battery, electrode, electrolyte, name
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