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  1. Incommunication, the functionalities are specified in individual layers of a layer model. Layer models exist for all network architectures and network operating systems such as the SNA architecture, DECnet, Transdata, the Department of Defense( DoD), NetWare, Vines, Windows NT or the standardized OSI reference model. These models consist of multiple layers on which elements with similar functions reside. Each layer describes the functions of the elements. The layers make it easier for developers to implement services because the functions and interfaces are clearly defined.
  2. However, the term layer is also used in the context of coating, for example in magnetic tapes, optical fibers, compact discs( CD) or DVDs.
  3. In addition, the term layer is also used for printed circuit boards, not as a layer but as a ply.
    Layer arrangement of multilayer boards

    Layer arrangement of multilayer boards

    Due to the increasing complexity and density of components on printed circuit boards, they are laminated on both sides with copper foil. If the double-sided conductive path is not sufficient for the circuit realization, one goes over to multilayer printed circuit boards. In this case, several thinner epoxy resin boards, all of which have laminated conductor tracks, are glued to each other with a precise fit. The layers of printed circuit boards have their own designations. The top layer with the components is called the component side( BS), component side or TOP. The side with the tracks is called solder side( LS), bottom side or BOTTOM. The layers in between are called inner layer or inner layers. The individual layers are designated from top to bottom with R1 (TOP), R2 (first inner layer), R3,... to Rx( BOT) for the solder side.

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