Electromagnetic pollution is the term used to describe all unwanted electromagnetic waves generated by electrical and electronic equipment. These include those that serve radio transmission and are emitted by antennas, those that are generated as interference radiation in conductors and devices, but also ionizing and non-ionizing radiation.
Interfering radiation from radio-technical equipment includes the transmitters for radio and television, the transmission masts of the various mobile radio networks, radio LANs or cordless telephony, to name but a few. The second group includes all electrical and electronic devices; electric stove and microwave oven, the lighting, baby monitors, monitors, televisions, power cables, high- voltage lines, X-ray machines, cell phones and many others. Ionizing radiation is gamma and X-ray radiation and non-ionizing radiation is UV light and thermal radiation.
Electrosmog is the sum of all electromagnetic fields and can be hazardous to health. To prevent such hazards from occurring, there are corresponding regulations and guidelines for compliance with the required limit values for emissions and immissions. In this context, mention should also be made of the SAR value, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), which in the case of cell phones indicates the interference radiation exposure for the human body. Depending on the type of radiation, effects on the human body are known.
Radiation from low-frequency alternating fields: The low- frequency range covers the frequency range up to 30 kHz and includes the power supply with 50 Hzalternating current. In the in-house area, electric and magnetic low-frequency alternating fields are formed by the power supply network. When current flows through the low-voltage network, magnetic interference fields form with a determinable magnetic flux density, specified in tesla (T). If no current is flowing, then electric interference fields form, causing a calculable electric field strength. The recommended limit for magnetic flux density should not exceed 100 nT, and the electric field strength should be less than 20 V/m.
Radiation from radio frequency (RF) and microwaves (MW): microwaves are absorbed close to the skin; radio frequencies can be absorbed by the entire body. At high intensity, both types of radiation cause heating of body tissues. Sources of radio frequency and microwaves include cellular phones, cell phones, WLANs, Bluetooth, radar systems, CB radios, radio and television transmitters, and other radio-related systems.
The limits for high-frequency emissions are 20 µW/m2 for digital emissions and 200 µW/m2 for analog emissions.
Infrared radiation (IR): Human skin and eyes absorb infrared light as heat. Strong exposure is perceived as heat or pain.
Visible light radiation: The different visible frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum are perceived by the human eye as colors. High levels of visible light radiation can cause damage to the skin and eyes.
UV radiation: UV light has a high photon energy and is particularly dangerous because symptoms are often delayed. Sources include solar radiation, lighting, arc welding, and UV lasers.