Active components in electronic circuits, components and devices require different supply voltages for their operation, which are adapted to requirements. These supply voltages are generated by the power supply.
The power supply can be a power supply unit, a switched- mode power supply, an accumulator, abattery or an uninterruptible power supply( UPS). The power supply is a central component that makes the supply voltage for the electronic circuits from a DC voltage of the accumulators or the UPS batteries or from the AC voltage of the mains. Depending on the requirements and the available voltage, supply voltages can be generated by rectifiers(AC to DC), DC to DC converters, inverters (DC to AC).
Depending on the application, the power supply must meet certain characteristic values. One of the most important characteristic values is the power requirement. Due to the improved energy efficiency of electronic components, their supply voltages are continuously decreasing, which leads to increasing currents for the plug-in cards and boards at the same supply power. Since currents of tens to hundreds of amperes can no longer be supplied to the boards in the traditional way from a central power supply, the power supplies are decentralized and operate as a distributed power architecture. For this purpose, a high supply voltage (48 V) is fed to the boards, where it is down-converted to the various lower voltages using DC/DC converters, intermediate busconverters( IBC) or PoL converters.
In addition to the above-mentioned characteristic value of the power requirement, the potential-free characteristics of the individual supply voltages, the load currents, the interference level at low voltages and the power envelope curve should also be mentioned. This is the characteristic curve that establishes the relationship between the current delivered and the voltage. To optimize certain characteristics and functions, there are also smart power supplies, integrated power supplies such as power management ICs( PMIC) and smart power supplies.
The embodiments for such power supply components are varied. They can be external components such as an AC adapter, internal power supplies, 19" power supplies for subracks and racks, batteries or accumulators, external generators or UPS systems.