Fingerprint recognition, dactyloscopy, is a biometric security method used to secure authenticated access to devices and networks. Since the papillary lines of the fingerprint are unique to each individual and cannot be changed, several methods rely on these characteristic features. Uniqueness is reported to be one in a million.
Procedurally, biometric features are extracted during fingerprint recognition. Several of these specific features, manifested in arcs, swirls, branches, islands, and loops, are captured and evaluated by fingerprint scanners.
A distinction is made between three different recognition methods implemented in fingerprint scanners: Directional Codes, Vector Line Type Analysis( VLTA) and minutiae. In the case of directional codes, the direction of the papillary lines is detected; in the case of vector line type analysis (VLTA), the fine skin lines of the fingerprint are analyzed at specific points; and in the case of minutiae, the endings and branches of the papillary lines are analyzed.
An older method for biometric identification of the fingerprint is Automated Fingerprint Identification System( AFIS). In addition, there are various static and dynamic methods. Fingerprint recognition has a relatively low error rate, with very high false acceptance rate( FAR) and false rejection rate( FRR) requirements. The false acceptance rate is between 0.001% and 2%, meaning that less than one valid fingerprint is rejected out of every 1,000 fingerprints taken.