The Internet is the world's largest network, providing every participant with an almost limitless information and communication infrastructure. It is a decentrally organized, global computer network consisting of very many interconnected local and national networks. Information is exchanged between the individual computers on the basis of various protocols, of which TCP/IP is the most widely used transport protocol
The historical development of the InternetThe origins of the Internet can be traced back to a military research project that occupied researchers in the 1950s. The Advanced Research Projects Agency, or ARPA for short, was founded for this purpose. The objective at the time was to develop a communications architecture that was as decentralized as possible as a more reliable alternative to the line-oriented data transmission that had been used until then. For this communication architecture, the communication protocol
TCP/IP was developed at the end of the 1960s.1973 was the actual founding date of the Internet, namely when the different implementations of packet-oriented transmission mechanisms were connected with each other. Four different packet-oriented networks - the ARPANET, a satellite network, a radio network and the Ethernet
developed by Xerox-Parc - were connected with each other via an Internet using TCP/IP.In 1983, ARPAnet had reached such an extent that it was divided into a research-oriented part (ARPAnet) and a military part. A few years later, the main transmission paths were upgraded from 56 kbit/s to 1.5 Mbit/s, and in the early 1990s, the NSF (National Science Foundation) backbone was upgraded to 45 Mbit/s. Since 1993, test networks with transmission speeds up to 622 Mbit/s and ATM technology have been tested. Intercontinental data traffic has also developed rapidly and in 2004 has a capacity of about 700 Gbit/s
for transatlantic routes, of which an average of 150 Gbit/s is used. Acapacity of 1.8 Tbit/s
isforecast for 2006, with an average throughput of
about 350 Gbit/s
Protocols and services of the InternetMany different technologies are implemented on the Internet. These include the IP protocol, which gave the Internet its name, the Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP), the Point to Point Protocol (PPP), the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) and gateway protocols such as the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), the Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) and Open Shortest Path First
(OSPF). Thetransport layer is supported by the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol
World Wide Web, the most well-known and widely used Internet serviceAt the application layer, the Internet provides numerous services that enable the exchange of information. These include electronic mail in the form of e-mails, the discussion forums
Access.Probably the most important service that has helped the Internet to achieve a breakthrough in the private sphere is
theWorld Wide Web
(WWW), which enables any user tonavigate the Internet easily and with graphical support in order to find information. Other services include streaming files for Internet telephony, Internet radio, and Internet television
The Internet as an interconnection of public and commercial networks.
The Internet has nodes to all known public, commercial, and research-oriented networks such as BITNET, European Academic and Research Network (EARN), User
Network(USENET), ISONET, EUnet, Computer Science
Network(CSNET), German Research
(WIN), and so on. Inaddition, the networks of the Internet Service Providers (ISP) are connected via Internet Exchange Points
(IXP). TheInternet can be used as an information and supply platform
Access is established via a connection to
the Internet. This can be done via the known modem techniques or via a specialized Tk provider, an Internet Service Provider (ISP).The Internet has changed from a pure scientific network to a commercially used
In recent years, it has developed like no other network into a super information highway with a multitude of services and even multimedia applications. The rapid development of the Internet, which has been used primarily for commercial purposes for several years now, can be seen in the number of connected Internet computers. While this number was still around 500,000 in 1991, the figure of 10 million was already exceeded in 1995 and almost doubled in the following years. In 1996 it was over 18 million, in 1997 about 40 million and in 1998 about 60 million. In 2000, more than 320 million users were connected to the Internet, to which about 80 million servers
were connected. Thestatistics for 2009 document that the Internet is used by over 1.6 billion people.
The further development of the Internet leads to the mobile Internet, the person-related Internet of People (IoP) and the thing-related Internet of Things (IoT), in which "things", i.e. products, equipment, measuring devices and systems communicate with each other. And the Wireless Internet of Things (WIoT) is about the communication of wirelessly operated micro devices, smart objects, sensors, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and low power and high loss networks, the Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLN).