transmission system operator (TSO)
Transmission system operators (TSOs) are service companies that operate the extra-high voltage grids for supraregional power supply and are responsible for operating and maintaining the transmission grids.
Transmission system operators are responsible for the supraregional power supply. They are responsible for a secure and stable power supply, which is ensured by exchanging power with other transmission system operators. They are also obliged to ensure a balance of power between the energy fed into the grid and the energy consumed, as well as grid stability in terms of grid frequency and grid voltage, for which a control zone with control variables and deviations is prescribed. For this purpose, the ultrahigh-voltage networks of the transmission system operators are interconnected. They are also connected to the low-voltage networks of the distribution network operators (DSOs), through which the end customers are supplied. The surge network operators appear on the electricity exchanges, where they offer their electricity.