system on chip (SoC)
A system-on- chip( SoC) is a complete system on a chip that has a wide variety of circuit components integrated. A system-on-chip is the integration of central processing units, additional processors, controllers, memory devices, random access memories( RAM) and read only memories( ROM), power management and other components on a single die chip.
The individual components of a system-on-chip are interconnected via the internal bus or in point-to-point connections, although bus architectures can only efficiently interconnect a certain number of communication partners. Since System-on-Chip has special requirements for internal buses, Advanced RISC Machine Limited( ARM) has developed the Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture( AMBA), which in the meantime represents the de facto standard for embedded processors.
The weak point of such solutions was and still is the limited number of processors that can communicate with each other via the bus architecture with high performance, the standardization of the component interfaces and the verification of the entire SoC component in terms of physical and functional properties. In this context, new design paradigms based on generic communication architectures are needed for an economical design of a system-on-chip.
The difference between a system-in-chip and a system-on-chip (SoC) is that the latter is a single chip that performs all functionalities; a system-in- package, on the other hand, consists of several chips placed in a package. Since it is very difficult to develop a complete electronic system in one chip, the development costs for such a system are relatively high and the development times are correspondingly long.
System-on-chip solutions open up new fields of application. They are available for all kinds of applications, from network technology to mobile communications, medicine, image processing, automotive technology, etc. System-on-chips can be complete systems with interfaces, A/D converters, BLE radio modules, processors, memories, microcontrollers and other electronic circuits. The further development of the System-on-Chip, away from the bus architecture, towards a network architecture, forms the Network-on-Chip( NoC).