The values of passive components such as resistors, capacitors and coils are determined via the standard series or E-series. Each E-series in itself represents the value range from 1 to 9 without overlap, depending on the tolerance
. Depending on the tolerance, there is
the E-series E3
with three values, E6 with six, E12 with twelve, E24 with twenty-four, E48 with forty-eight and E96 with ninety-six values. The finer the gradations of the standard series, the smaller their tolerances. For example, the E96 standard series represents a tolerance of 1%, the E48 represents a tolerance of 2%, E24 has 5% and E12 has 10%.root of
10. The second value is therefore 2.15 or rounded up to 2.2. The third value of the E3 series results from the multiplication of 2.15 times 2.15 and is 4.62, rounded up to 4.7. The three values of the E3 series are therefore 1.0, 2.2 and 4.7.
Thesame applies to the other E series. For E6, the multiplier results from the sixth root of 10 and is 1.46. For E12, it results from the twelfth root of 10 and is 1.22, and so on. The values of the norm series repeat at each decade
. For example, the norm series E48 has the value of 3.32. In each decade, this value can be 3.32, 33.2, 332, 3.32 k, 33.2 k, 332 k, etc. Since the E3 series consists of only three values, it has the highest tolerance with more than 20%, E6 has 20%, E12 10%, E24 5%, E48 2% and E96 1%.