The term splice is treated in ITWissen as a connection technique for optical fibers. In this context, a splice represents a non-detachable connection between two optical fibers. In a splice connection, two optical fibers are brought together compactly with their end faces and fixed mechanically, by means of an arc or with adhesive. Such a splice connection is characterized by lowest attenuation values.
Before the actual splicing, certain preparatory work must be carried out. To obtain a smooth surface, the glass fibers must be cut precisely with a fiber cutting device, a cleaver. Then the end faces of the two glass fibers are aligned and adjusted under a microscope so that they abut each other exactly. There are three splice connections: the adhesive splice, the crimp splice and the fusion splice or fusion splice.
In the adhesive splice, the optical fibers are guided against each other by a high-precision ferrule, which is a mechanical guide tube. At the junction of the two optical fibers, adhesive is introduced from the outside through an opening in the guide tube to ensure a permanent connection. Adhesive splices are only possible with multimode fibers; they can be performed on site and have an insertion loss of 0.2 dB to 0.7 dB.
A crimp spl ice is a mechanical splice. This splice can be performed on multimode fibers and monomode fibers and requires a crimp splicer. In this technique, the two ends of the optical fibers are brought together in the splice ferrule. An indexmatchinggel is filled between the two fiber ends to match the refractive indices. The insertion loss is about 0.3 dB for identical optical fibers. Crimp splices can also be installed in the field and are comparable to an adhesive splice in attenuation values, which are approximately 0.3 dB for identical optical fibers.
The most widely used method for inseparably joining two optical fibers is the arc splice technique, also called fusion splicing or fusion splicing. In fusion splicing, the prepared fiber ends are precisely aligned using the Alignment Technique and directly welded together in an electric arc at about 2000 Kelvin without any additional aids. The splice attenuation is between 0.03 dB and 0.2 dB.