The term smart home stands for an intelligent home, e-home (eHome) or internet home.A smart home can be a part of the Internet of Things( IoT) or the Wireless Internet of Things(WIoT). This concept can also be seen under the Connected Living or Connected Home vision. Smart home deals with connected living, as opposed to a smart building, which refers to office buildings, shopping malls, hotels and event halls.
A smart home is about integrated home control, which includes all components for controlling and automating systems and appliances. Smart home is a holistic concept of building automation in which the energy supply and consumption control with smart metering is integrated with all household appliances and lighting. Another important aspect is the home networks, which include computers and their peripherals, consumer electronics devices, surveillance and alarm systems, security cameras, blinds, door openers, heating systems and all communications technology equipment.
As network technology, Smart Home relies on Ethernet, wireless technologies such as WLANs, Bluetooth, Z-Wave, Enocean, ZigBee 3.0, Thread network, Homekit and DECT ULE (Ultra Low Energy), as well as existing powernetworks with Powerline. In addition, digital TV and HDTV are also transmitted via the home networks, and at data rates of 200 Mbit/s and higher. As smart homes are integrated into the Internet of Things (IoT), the standardization activities of the IP500 Alliance are opening up interesting applications for wireless technology based on existing technologies such as IEEE 802.15.4, IPv6, 6LoWPAN, IPsec and other protocols.
There are smart home concepts with a home energy management system( HEMS) that uses occupancy sensors to detect the location of their occupants and initiate energy-saving measures by turning on or off home appliances, lighting, audio systems, or heating based on the occupant's presence and location. Other concepts rely on near- field communication. This involves smartphones and tablets recognizing and communicating with household appliances via radio.
The field buses used in smart homes are the European Installation Bus( EIB), the Digital Addressable Lighting Interface( DALI), the Batibus, the European Home System( EHS) and the Local Operating Network( LON). In addition to various sensors and actuators for controlling temperature, brightness or access authorization, there are fault and emergency controls, as well as cyclical control according to day, week and seasons. ZigBee has developed ZigBee Home Automation( ZHA), a smart-home concept that can provide homes with greater comfort and security and have reduced energy consumption.