To achieve the small beam angle, pencil beam antennas are made of a special material called metamaterial. These are technically manufactured regular structures that differ from natural materials in permeability and permittivity.
The main lobe of the pencil beam radiation pattern is extremely thin and has a narrow beam angle. The antenna gain in the main lobe can be 40 dB or more. In the side lobes, the pencil beam or narrow beam antenna has no antenna gain; its attenuation values there average -3 dB.
Pencil beam antennas are used, among other things, in radar technology, directional radio and inter- satellite links.