Optical switches work with different methods. An electromechanical method that uses microscopic mirrors, Micro Electromechanical Mirrors( MEM). In this method, the micromirrors are tilted in their axes. Another method works with transparent mirrors made of liquid crystals. Here, the mirrors can reflect or transmit the light signals.
Other methods work purely optically on the basis of optocouplers or optical switching networks, while still others, the LC switches, are based on liquid crystal or bubble jet technology. In the latter technique, bubbles (chambers) are filled with a liquid that has a different refractive index than the unfilled chamber during the switching process. With this technique, switching times in the single- digit millisecond range can be achieved.