An operation is a command, instruction, or statement execution. In computers, these can be arithmetic or logical, asynchronous, synchronous or parallel operations. In data networks, those that serve data transfer or routing
. An arithmetic operation
refers to dual arithmetic
and the associated basic arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The same is true for the logical operation, which is used to check the equality and inequality of values. The third operation, which is derived from dual arithmetic, is the complementary operation. This can be seen in the XOR function or if-then function, among others.
Asynchronous operations are those that do not run synchronously with the clock cycle, but in a time span outside the clock range. Accordingly, synchronous operations work in sync with the clock cycle. Global operations refer to a complete document. An example of a global operation is a full-text search. Parallel operations are characterized by the simultaneous processing of two or more operations. This can be done by multiplexing on one processor, or by multiprocessor systems. Indivisible operations are characterized by the fact that they may not be interrupted or have an interrupt mechanism that holds a defined operation state.