Network protocols process the functional scope of the networklayer. These include switching, connection establishment and termination, reset, interruption, error detection, and transparent data transport between network endpoints.
The connection and transport services do not only refer to homogeneous networks, but must also support end system connections that are established over multiple, different networks.
As with all other OSI layers, there are standardized network protocols, OSI protocols and proprietary network protocols for the network layer. The best known and most widely used network layer protocol is the Internet Protocol( IP). Other protocols supporting this layer include RoutingInformation Protocol( RIP), Address Resolution Protocol( ARP), Reverse Address Resolution Protocol( RARP), Internet Control Message Protocol( ICMP), Open Shortest Path First( OSPF), and Exterior Gateway Protocol ( EGP).
In Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), the OSI reference model's network layer is split in two to support connectionless and connection-oriented services. In addition to X.25, End System to Intermediate System( ES-IS) and Intermediate System to Intermediate System( IS-IS) should be mentioned.