In 1991, the North American Internet backbone was renamed the NREN backbone by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The National Research and Education Network
(NREN) was developed into an InternetService Provider (ISP) with a modern high-speed network
for research and education in the U.S.To support individual research projects, the NREN network offers dedicated channels. NREN is also where new Internet protocols are tested before they are deployed on the Internet. Examples include the IPv6 protocol and IP multicast
. Many countries around the world have their own National Research and Education Networks.