Narrow Band IoT( NB-IoT) is a narrowband radio technology for the transmission of small amounts of data and low data rates for the Internet of Things (IoT). NB-IoT is internationally standardized and is characterized by low energy consumption, which can be covered by batteries or also with energy harvesting. The network concepts used in this context are Low Power WANs( LPWAN) and Long Range WANs( LoRaWAN). NB-IoT is also known as LTECat NB1.
The focus of NB-IoT is on in-house applications using low-cost components with the lowest power consumption. Battery life can be several years. The technology can be embedded in the GSM standard and in Long Term Evolution ( LTE). Because these mobile networks operate at frequencies in the sub- GHz range, unlike WLANs, the radio waves can penetrate buildings better. Embedding NB-IoT technology in mobile communications technology is better anyway, since mobile networks are not optimized for transmitting small amounts of data and low data rates and would therefore require too much energy. The transmission technology of NB-IoT works bidirectionally in duplex.
Narrow Band IoT can be used in smart cities, smart homes, smart grids and many other applications. In the smart city, it can provide city residents with information about infrastructure, support traffic management, facilitate parking lot locators, and help save energy in public lighting. In the smart home, it is about optimizing energy costs in which household appliances and lighting are integrated, alarm systems and surveillance cameras, and in the smart grid, it is about controlling and managing energy supply, storage and use.
A similar LoRaWAN concept is pursued by SigFox, which is not internationally standardized.