Mobile network operators (MNOs) are companies that operate mobile communications networks. They have their own mobile communications networks and the radio links, antennas, base stations, switching equipment, and network management systems relevant for transmission and transmission control.
Mobile network operators such as Telekom, Vodafone, O2 or E-Plus hold state broadcasting licenses and develop and implement standardized and proprietary mobile communications services that they offer to their mobile communications customers. The services depend on the mobile network - GSM, UMTS, Long Term Evolution( LTE) - and differ not only in data rates. Excess capacity is sold to resellers or Mobile Virtual Network Operators(MVNOs) for economic network utilization, who offer it on the free market. Mobile services offered by mobile network operators can be billed monthly as pay services in postpaid. Alternatively, the user can bill in advance for the services used in prepaid.