mobile backhaul (MBH)
Mobile backhaul is a network via which the aggregated traffic of the various mobile networks is transmitted. Due to the rapid increase in data traffic caused by the transmission of video sequences and other mobile communications services, increased technical and economic demands are being placed on mobile backhaul. Mobile backhaul concentrates the data streams from the radio base stations of the GSM networks, the Node B of UMTS and the Evolved Node B of Long Term Evolution( LTE).
The various base stations can be connected to the mobile backhaul network via microwave technology, fiber optics, FTTCell or copper lines. Mobile backhaul must respond flexibly to these requirements and to the long-term increase in data traffic with scalable solutions. Flexibility is about the trend toward small cells, i.e., small radio networks to increase mobile capacities and optimum radio coverage. Scaling is about low latency for the transmission of real-time mobile radio services, high quality of service and synchronization oftransport streams. The latter is specified in the IEEE 1588 standard.
Mobile backhauls are implemented via passive optical networks( PON) such as gigabit PONs or 10-gigabit Ethernet PONs. Newer techniques rely on combined multiplexing methods such as TWDM-PON.