Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLN) are networks that operate with low power, low data rates and higher loss rates. The integrated network components - often smart objects communicate in LLN networks - have limited computing power, are battery-powered or generate their energy using energy harvesting.
Various standardization bodies have developed appropriate transmission concepts for lossy LLN networks. For example, the IETF has specified Constrained Restful Environment (CORE) for the application layer and has standardized the 6LoWPAN protocol for the switching layer. In addition, the IETF has developed routing protocols, such as Routing over Low Power and Lossy Networks (ROLL) and Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks( RPL), a robust routing protocol that recognizes Directed Acyclic Graph( DAG) and Destination Oriented Directed Acyclic Graph( DODAG) as routing strategies. In addition, the IPSO Alliance has developed" IP for Smart Objects" (IPSO), an IP-based protocol for smart objects that includes Lightweight M2M( LWM2M) specifications.