Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are for the acquisition, processing, analysis and presentation (EVAP) of geographic data as found in cadastral plans, maps, city plans, weather maps, topographic and cartographic plans. They are special computer systems with an effective ordering system for spatial and navigational data, whose application focus is on spatial analysis.
Geographic data is the core of any GIS system. Whereas years ago the collection of spatial data was extremely time-consuming, today this work is carried out by GPS systems by collecting GPS coordinates on site and transferring them to the GIS systems. This spatial data includes elevation information in addition to the two geographic coordinates. During processing, the various data formats are transformed and processed.
The actual geoinformation is created by linking the different geographic information. The linkage is decisive for the analysis, because only existing data sets can be linked and analyzed. This also shows the importance of the data stocks, which can often be taken over by government agencies and private companies, for example cadastral offices, surveying authorities, satellite and navigation services.
GIS systems can be used equally for environmental monitoring, population development, tree cover or climatic changes. Their results form the basis for economic, political or municipal decisions. But GIS systems also play an important role in transportation and navigation, for example in fleet management or route planning.