A fractal is an irregular, complex geometric object
. A fractal is unequal in all directions and consists of non-repeating patterns. The geometric proportions of a fractal are not integer, but have a fractional dimension
, for example of 1.4 or 2.2. It is therefore a structure that is neither line (1D), nor surface (2D), nor body (3D).
Scientifically, these are models that occur in nature. Around the shape of stones or rocks, trees or clouds. Science has tried for years to describe fractal shapes. Only with the power of modern computers can such shapes be captured and treated mathematically. Fractal technology is used in computer games and the film industry to create complex shapes such as landscapes and planetary surfaces and in fractal image compression.