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fifth generation (5G)

The mobile radio technologies are represented by mobile radio generations, which are designated with digits. According to this hierarchical structure, the 4th generation (4G) was dominated by Long Term Evolution (LTE). 5G is the ITU 's designation for a 5th generation (5G) mobile network with data rates in the gigabit range. 5G is being driven by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) with the IMT-2020 initiative and is to be understood as a comprehensive concept encompassing various networks

, technologies and applications. An example of 5G standardization is the New Radio (NR) air interface, which covers larger frequency ranges. Release 15 ofLong Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) is a standard for New Radio. In addition, it is also about the highly flexible core network. All 5G end devices should be able to operate in 5G networks, regardless of their technology

5G with data rates in the gigabit range

The data rates supported by mobile networks depend on the transmission frequency and thus on the

availablebandwidth. The area capacity is 10 Mbit/s per square meter. Data rates of 100 Mbit/s in the downlink and 50 Mbit/s in the uplink are available to end users. For millimeter waves, data rates of 20 Gbit/s in the downlink and 10 Gbit/s in the uplink are realistic. These high data rates can be achieved with the QAM

1024 modulation, which increases spectral efficiency

Data rates of the various mobile networks

Data rates of the various mobile networks

5G technology is primarily concerned with increasing capacity. These can be achieved through improved modulation techniques such as Generalized Frequency Domain Multiplexing (GFDM), multicarrier modulation, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), carrier aggregation, OFDMA, QPSK, 3D MIMO and Massive MIMO, Adaptive Antenna System (AAS), spatial beamforming, Ultra Low Latency (ULL) with latency of less than 1 ms, downsizing of radio cells towards femtocells and some other techniques. Another technique covered in LTE-A Release 15, called Dynamic Spectrum Sharing

(DSS), provides more efficient use of spectrum in the 700 MHz range. It enables simultaneous use of the transmission infrastructure for Long Term Evolution and 5G transmissions depending on demand. Thanks to the DSS technology, a faster roll-out of the 5G infrastructure is possible

The frequency ranges of

5GAs far as

the 5G frequen

ciesused in Germany are concerned, we are talking about the 700 MHz

frequency range, which is availableas a digital dividend due to digitisation

, the2 GHz range and the 3.6 GHz range, whose coverage is comparable to that of UMTS and Long Term Evolution (LTE). The GHz frequency ranges mentioned are the frequency ranges between 1.920 GHz

and 1.980 GHz for the uplink and the frequency range between 2.110 GHz and 2.170 GHz for the downlink. Another frequency range is that between 3.4 GHz and 3.8 GHz

5G antennas, Photo: n-tv-de

5G antennas, Photo: n-tv-de

Since wide frequency bands are required for high-speed transmission at 5 Gbit/s, the frequency ranges between 24.25 GHz and 27.5 GHz are available in the European Union. The lower frequency range of centimetre waves up to 30 GHz is intended to provide wide-area coverage, while the millimetre wave frequency range above this is suitable for smart cells made up of microcells and picocells

with a short range. In other countries, the use of millimeter waves is being tested in the frequency ranges from 71 GHz to 76 GHz and from 81 GHz to 86 GHz.For hotspots, frequencies between 24.25 GHz and 27.5 GHz will be considered later. For frequency ranges above 20 GHz, the bandwidths are 100 MHz, 200 MHz and 400 MHz. With carrier bundling, bandwidths up to 2 GHz can be achieved. The high frequencies have extremely high free space attenuation and are used for point-to-point links with microwave directional radio. They are less suitable for network coverage of 5G because these frequencies require an extremely high density of base stations

and many antennas. Inaddition to the above-mentioned frequencies, the Digital Dividend III frequency band between 470 MHz and 694 MHz for Broadband Fixed Wireless Access

(BFWA) will later be used for 5G

5G smart cells

5th generation mobile networks consist of smart cells of various sizes: microcells, picocells and femtocells. 5G microcells achieve coverage of up to 2 km with a transmit power of between 2 W and 5 W. Such a microcell can be used by up to 200 mobile subscribers simultaneously. In contrast, picocells used in shopping malls, train stations, halls or stadiums have a transmitting power of 100 mW to 500 mW and cover a range of up to 250 m. The femtocells used indoors transmit with 10 mW to 100 mW. Their transmitting radius is up to 50 m and up to 16 nuitzers can log in

5G concepts and 5G applications

The 5G technology supports mesh networks in which the mobile devices act as relay stations for other mobile devices with poor reception. Furthermore, they support Software Defined Networking (SDN) for a more flexible backbone network and Device-to-Device Communication (D2D), where mobile devices within a radio cell communicate directly with each other, thus reducing the load on the base station. In addition, network infrastructure can be partitioned using network slicing, and Network Functions Virtualization

(NFV) can be used to ensure a high degree of flexibility between the core network with theNext Generation Core

(NGC) and mobile access.In terms of application areas, 5th generation mobile networks are all about mobile

services with the highest bandwidth.In terms of applications, 5th generation mobile networks will be used for high bandwidth mobile services, Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), mobile computing, social networking, video sharing, machine-to-machine (M2M) communications, traffic control, smart cities, real-timewebcommunications and other mobile services such as e-health, and Internet ofThings (IoT) and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications. The ITU has defined three service categories for 5th generation mobile communications: Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) focuses on high bandwidth services. Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication (uRLLC) is about latency-sensitive services such as autonomous driving, and Massive Machine-Type Communications (mMTC) is about services with high connection density. Furthermore, high availability

and the lowest possible energy consumption are required, which is about one tenth of today's systems.Based on the areas of application, it can be seen that, on the one hand, data traffic

withhigh bandwidth, such as occurs in video streaming, must be handled, but on the other hand, individual small data packets are also sent via 5G networks, which contain sensor data in the Internet of Things (IoT) or data from smart wearables. So it is also, or in particular, about the communication of low-cost end devices, the low-end devices. In addition, the services have to meet different requirements. For example, M2M communication and car-to-car communication require extremely low latency times of just a few milliseconds, while public safety radio must meet legal security standards. As far as connection density is concerned, 5G is expected to network one million end devices

per square meter. Intotal, several billion users

and trillions of things can be networked via 5G.

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Englisch: fifth generation - 5G
Updated at: 20.01.2021
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