field area network (FAN)
Field Area Networks (FAN) form the communication infrastructure for smart grids. Due to the wide variety of feed-in options, connected energy storage systems and consumers, smart grids have a complex distributed structure.
Via this distributed infrastructure, utilities monitor and control the various components for medium and low- voltage grids and consumption metering systems such as AMI systems, Advanced Metering Infrastructure.
There are various technical characteristics for field area networks. These depend on population density, existing infrastructure or terrestrial topography. In general, a wide variety of wired technologies can be used, such as DSL methods or Powerline Communication( PLC), FTTx technologies with optical transmission techniques, or radio and mobile technologies such as IEEE 802.16 or Long Term Evolution( LTE).