Exchangeable Image File (EXIF) is the standard file format for digital cameras, standardized by JEIDA and used as a reference in ISO 12234-1. It is a vendor-independent metadata format for exchanging image and photo files for communication between digital camera and color printer or other devices such as notebooks or tablets.
EXIF files contain the image data in JPEG or Tagged Image File Format( TIFF), plus a data appendix with comment lines and information about the camera type and camera settings such as exposure time, aperture, light source, distance, film speed in ASA, the date, time, etc. Which data is stored depends on the camera manufacturer. Digital cameras equipped with a GPS system also store the GPS coordinates (GPS) in the EXIF file.
EXIF files are mostly stored in the DCF file structure (Design Rules for Camera File System). While EXIF data primarily stores photo technical settings, International Press Telecommunications Council( IPTC) is about notes and comments of the photos and Extensible Metadata Platform(XMP) stores metadata about photos and their processing steps.