Errors are deviations of an actual state from a specified standard or a target state. Related to the context of itwissen.info, errors are recognizable and measurable functional deviations from the rules. They can be caused by hardware or software and are due to malfunctions, disturbances or events that affect each other.
Commonly decaying errors include hardware failures, faulty connections, disconnects, exceeding time limits, under or over voltages, interference, bit delays, drive runtime variations, and more.
In data communications, error frequency is a characteristic value for the ratio of data transmitted with errors to all data transmitted. It refers to transmitted bits, bytes, data blocks and frames and is specified as bit error rate (BER), block error rate (BLER) or packet error rate (FER). Data communication knows various methods for error detection and error correction with which errored data streams can be detected and corrected.
In systems engineering, it is a matter of downtimes caused by errors. These errors are quantified in terms of their frequency and duration, and are expressed as a time average until functionality is restored. An example is Mean Time between Failures (MTBF), which indicates the average time between the occurrence of two failures.