Emergency Call (eCall) is an in-vehicle emergency call system that sends out the European emergency number 112 in the event of an accident. The emergency call concept was initiated by the EU Commission and is intended to help reduce the number of accident fatalities. According to EU regulations, eCall must be installed in new cars from 1.4.2018.
Structure of the eCall system
An eCall system consists of the built-in eCall device, the In-Vehicle System( IVS), the mobile network for communication and the emergency call center, the Public Safety Answering Point( PSAP). In the event of an accident or emergency, the built-in eCall device sends an emergency call to the PSAP via the cellular network.
Such an emergency call can be made automatically by a crash sensor triggered by the airbag, or manually via an emergency call button. In both cases, a connection to the emergency call center is established via a mobile network. The connection is used for automatic data transmission and for establishing a voice connection to the emergency control center. This is used for voice communication between the emergency participants and the emergency call center.
In order for the emergency call center to recognize that it is an emergency call from an e-call device, a special flag is first transmitted as an identifier. This is followed by the 140- byte data telegram, the Minimum Set of Data( MSD). The data telegram contains the exact time of the emergency call and the location of the vehicle, the direction of travel, vehicle identifier, drive type, and the identifier of the service provider. To determine the location, the motor vehicle requires a GPS receiver, which uses the GPS system to determine the exact location and transmits it to the emergency call center via a GSM module.
eCall in combination with C2C communication
As an additional technical approach, eCall could be combined with car-to-car communication so that vehicles that do not have GPS can make their emergency call in this way. In addition to location and time information, the emergency call contains information about the direction of travel, which is particularly important in the case of accidents on the highway or in tunnels, and vehicle identification. Based on the emergency call via the Europe-wide valid number 112 and the knowledge of the accident location and time, rescue forces can act optimally.
The successor system to the eCall emergency call system is Next Generation eCall( NGeCall).