Surfaces and bodies can be electrostatically charged by adding or removing charge carriers. In general, surfaces and bodies are electrically neutral because they have equal proportions of positive and negative charge carriers.
If charge is added to a body, then the equilibrium of charge carriers becomes an imbalance, which manifests itself in a positive or negative charge. If electrons are removed from a neutral body, then protons predominate and the body acquires a positive charge. It is different when electrons are added to a body, then electrons predominate and it acquires a negative charge.
The electrostatic charge, Electrostatic Charge (ESC), of bodies can be due to friction, electrical conduction and influence. Electrostatic charges due to friction are material and moisture dependent. If two bodies are charged with different potentials, potential equalization takes place between them in the form of electrostatic discharges, Electrostatic Discharge (ESD). It is irrelevant whether the material is a conductor or an insulator. We are familiar with the resulting effects such as lightning
, statically charged hair, or a charged car body. There is a contact electrical voltage series in which the materials with high and low electron affinity are listed.
These materials include glass, hard rubber, fur, hair, silk, polyester and paper.