Electronic control units are intelligent processor-controlled units and modules that communicate via the central gateway( CGW) and form the vehicle electrical system via fieldbuses such as the CAN bus, LIN bus, MOST bus and FlexRay or via automotive Ethernet together with the telematics control units. Modern motor vehicles may well contain up to 100 or more different ECU units.
Electronic control units support the functions relevant to the vehicle's driving behavior, such as engine control, power transmission, the braking system or the tire pressure control system. In addition, all driver assistance systems, as there are the adapted speed control, the lane departure warning, lane change assistant, traffic sign recognition and light signal recognition, the start-up assistant, night vision assistant, intersection assistant, and many others. There are also ECUs for driving comfort, in-vehicle infotainment, and navigation, not to mention the various communication services such as car-to-x communication.
Modern cars have ECU units that monitor and trigger the airbags, those for comfort such as seat comfort, those that check if the doors are closed, if it is raining or if the lights need to be turned on because of driving through a tunnel.