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dynamics

Dynamics is the study of physical forces. It acts wherever two values of the same physical quantity are interdependent and in a certain relationship to each other. Dynamics is a dimensionless quantity that is specified as a ratio of two values.

  1. In audio technology, video technology and communication technology, dynamics stands for the mathematical relationship between two values, volume or voltage, contrast or brightness. In most cases, it is the ratio between the highest possible level and the lowest possible level.
    Dynamic range of different media

    Dynamic range of different media

    If, for example, the loudest sound level of a piece of music or the brightest part of a color display is 1,000 times louder than the quietest part or 1,000 times brighter than the darkest part, then the dynamic range is 1,000:1.
  2. Media are also characterized by their dynamic range. This applies equally to mechanical, electrical, magnetic or optical media for recording and reproducing text, graphics, photos, audio or video.
    Dynamic range of display media

    Dynamic range of display media

    For example, depending on the quality, paper has a dynamic range of between 10 for newsprint and 100 for high-quality paper.Screens have a dynamic range of around 100, and classic slides have a dynamic range of 1,000. In the case of audio and video, their dynamic range determines the reproduction dynamics.
  3. In digital photography and image processing, the dynamic range corresponds to the area between the brightest and darkest parts of the image. The larger the dynamic range, the more differences in brightness are possible. For example, the dynamic range of recording devices such as digital cameras or camcorders is determined by the brightness resolution. With 8 bits, there are 256 brightness levels, i.e. a dynamic range of 1:256. corresponding to 48 dB. In photography, this value corresponds to an aperture range of 6.5 f-stops. This dynamic range is called Standard Dynamic Range( SDR). At 10 bits, it is 1,024 brightness levels, corresponding to 60 dB, and at 12 bits, it is 4,096 brightness levels, corresponding to 72 dB. This dynamic range is considered High Dynamic Range( HDR).
  4. The dynamic range of quadrupoles such as amplifiers, companders, sensors, AD converters, etc. of display and recording units such as displays or CCD sensors, but also of audio components or loudspeakers is specified in decibels (dB). Depending on circuit technology and designs, dB values of 100 dB and more are achieved.
Informations:
Englisch: dynamics
Updated at: 23.11.2016
#Words: 369
Links: indium (In), audio, video, communication (COM), voltage
Translations: DE
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