data plane (SDN) (DP)
The Data Plane (DP), sometimes also called User Plane( UP) or Carrier Plane, is the part of the network over which the user data is transmitted. Routing is performed in this plane.
In telecommunications architectures, the Data Plane is one of the three basic components, along with the Control Plane( CP) and the Management Plane. Each of them transmits different data traffic and conceptually forms an overlay network. The Control Plane and the Management Plane support the user plane at which traffic is transmitted in the network.
The Data Plane supports data transfer to and from clients, and is where a wide variety of protocols are handled and conversation with remote peers is managed. In conventional networks, all three planes are implemented in the firmware of routers and switches.
In Software Defined Networking( SDN) and Software Defined WAN( SD-WAN), there is a decoupling between the Control Plane and the Data Plane. This decoupling takes place in the network components. While the control plane is controlled by software and optimizes and defines the data path through the network, the data plane or forwarding plane contains hardware in the form of routers, switches and virtual switches that are controlled by the control plane.
In ATM networks, the user plane belongs to the higher ATM layers. It lies above the ATMadaptation layer in the ATMlayer model and handles data services. This includes support for virtual networks for LAN em ulation or for emulation of other services and structures. These emulations create the prerequisites for the communication links via the virtual networks.