A coprocessor(CP) is a second microprocessor of a computer that performs special calculations for the central processing unit( CPU), relieving it of certain tasks and thus speeding up computing operations. Functionally, a coprocessor corresponds to a back-end processor that performs special tasks.
Typical coprocessors are Numerical Processing Units( NPU) for computationally intensive floating point calculations or the floating point units, Floating Point Unit( FPU), such as the Intel chips 8087, 80287 and 80387 as well as memory managers, Memory Management Unit( MMU). In modern microprocessors, coprocessors such as the floating point unit and the memory manager are integrated on the chip. The coprocessor accelerates computing operations, provides load balancing and can itself process applications.
Coprocessors are also used for graphical calculations, in CAD systems and computer games.