Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) is the computer-aided numerical control of machine tools. CNC machines are mostly used in metal-cutting manufacturing and are controlled by microprocessors
. They can machine complex workpieces with high precision and reproduce them as often as required. The manufacture of workpieces begins with computer-aided design using CAD systems
inwhich the workpiece is designed. It continues in computer-aided manufacturing with CNC systems, where the workpieces are designed to be manufactured in optimized paths of circles, straight lines, and curved lines. Servo and linear motors are used to control the workpieces and tools, enabling high-precision positioning. For this purpose, the individual steps
are monitored by an optical control system. Since therelation of
workpiece to tool can be changed in three axes, this is also referred to as three-axis control. Inorder to optimise the machining time, there are a number of boundary conditions that must be taken into account during programming. These concern the type of workpiece deformation, which can be cutting or non-cutting, which has a direct influence on the material surface, and which is directly related to the turning speed.
The software for manufacturing the workpieces is customer-specific and is written in the international standard programming language G-code. The program, which contains the positioning and control commands, is implemented by the Machine Control Unit (MCU).