Color models are used to describe and specify colors. They enable the adaptation of as many colors as possible to a specific medium. Color models are 3D models that can be used to reproduce all colors that occur in nature, if possible.
Since different media use different color mixes, the color models are optimized for specific media and color mixing processes: for example, for color representation on monitors, which work with additive color mixing, or for the print sector, which works with subtractive color mixing. The 3D color models include hue, saturation and brightness.
One of the best known color models is the RGB color model, with the primary colorsred, green, blue (RGB). This color model is used in additive color mixing in monitors or in TV sets with emitting colors. Another color model is the CMYK color model, which is used in the print sector for four-color printing. "C", "M" and "Y" stand for the colors cyan, magenta and yellow (Yellow), "K" stands for key and is referred to as depth in the printing industry. This color model is optimized for subtractive color mixing, as used in printers. The color space of the RGB color model includes many more colors than that of the CMYK color model.
Other color models are the YUV color model from television and video technology according to the PAL television standard, and the YIQ color model used in the NTSC television standard. In addition, there is the HSV color model, in which the hue, saturation and value determine the color mixing, and the HSB color model. Other models are HLS color model and the HSI color model.
In addition to the device-dependent color models, there is also the device-independent Lab color model with CIELab. The xvYCC color model, which has a much larger color space than the other color models, was also developed for the reproduction of HD media.
Many of these color models are implemented in graphics programs. There is a mathematical relationship between the individual color models, so that one color model can be transferred to another.