In general, a charging cable is the cable with which the charging station or charger is connected to the mobile device to be charged. In the context discussed here, we are talking about the charging cable for electric vehicles.
The charging cable is a type of connecting cable that has identical charging plugs at both ends, which makes it easier to use. The charging cable has three current phases, a neutral conductor and the protective conductor, and also two signal conductors. Depending on the conductor cross-section, charging cables are designed for currents between 13 A and 63 A. The former value refers to a conductor cross-section of 1.5 qmm, the latter to conductor cross-sections between 10 and 16 qmm. The two signal-carrying conductors Control Pilot( CP) and Proximity Pilot( PP) serve to activate the immobilizer and determine the maximum charging current on the basis of the conductor cross-section. These signal contacts are also used for communication via Powerline Communication( PLC). These communication lines are used for subsequent energy feedback to the smart grid, the intelligent power grid. Their protection class is IP65 or higher.
If the electric vehicle is charged via a normal mains socket, then the charging process is controlled via an In-Cable Control Box( ICCB). In this system, the charging cable has an earthed plug on the mains side and the charging plug on the vehicle side. To prevent the charging process from being deliberately interrupted, charging systems have two locking techniques, one electrical and one mechanical. For safety and to prevent tampering with the charging cable, the charging plugs cannot be reconnected.
Fast charging systems such as the CCS charging system or Chademo operate with much higher currents of up to several hundred amperes. This results in significantly higher cable cross-sections. These cannot be increased at will because of the increasing stiffness and the associated poorer manageability. As the heat generated in the charging cable increases, there are considerations to cool the charging cable.