(ASN.1). These rules can be used to encode data elements that are used to specify ASN.1 elements as a byte string. The string includes data fields for the type, length, and value. The type field indicates the object class, the length field indicates the number of bytes used to encode the value, and the value data field indicates the information
Thetype class is determined by the two most significant bits
, bit 8 and bit 7. There are the following type classes: Universal (00), Application (01), Context (10), and Private (11). The Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) are a subset of the Basic Encoding Rules and indicate, among other things, how the length parameters of the data objects are encoded. The Packed Enc oding Rules (PER) are the more efficient successor rules to the Basic Encoding Rules.