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autonomous driving (AD)

Autonomous driving is characterized by several development stages from assisted driving, in which the driver keeps an eye on the traffic and adapts his driving behavior to the traffic situation, through the various stages of partially or highly automated driving, to autonomous driving. These development levels are defined in the six SAE levels

defined by

the Society of Automotive Engineers ( SAE

).The development of autonomous driving is inextricably linked to the continuous further development of driver assistance systems

. At the lower SAE levels, the driver is in control of the vehicle and is supported by only a few, if any, driver assistance systems. Only with partial automation and highly automated driving can the driver hand over the driving task to the driving system at short notice. However, he must be able to take control of the vehicle at any time.

Driver assistance systems

Driver assistance systems

The next higher SAE level 4 is about fully automated driving, where the driver can relinquish control of the vehicle and the vehicle acts completely autonomously. And at the highest SAE level 5, autonomous driving or autonomous vehicle, the vehicle can drive to its destination completely autonomously, without intervention from an occupant of the vehicle.

Traffic situation at night, photo: saechsische.de

Traffic situation at night, photo: saechsische.de

The development of the autonomous driving vehicle is an extremely complex task, primarily involving the recognition and assessment of the traffic situation and who is involved: cars, trucks, buses, motorcycles, pedestrians, animals, moving objects, etc. The basis for the development of the autonomous driving vehicle is the recognition systems developed so far that work with object recognition. And above all, the techniques of artificial intelligence. When assessing a traffic situation, the light and visibility conditions play a decisive role. The red of a traffic light phase must be clearly distinguished from a red brake light. Similarly, changing neon signs must not impair the view of traffic signs or traffic lights. In the case of glare, the lighting conditions are completely different from those of clear visibility, so that the detection systems cannot detect oncoming, oncoming, overtaking, crossing or transversing vehicles without any doubt in the case of glare. These examples can be continued at will.

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Englisch: autonomous driving - AD
Updated at: 25.09.2020
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