Automotive engineering deals with means of transport and vehicle technology. It is used in motor vehicles, rail vehicles, agricultural machinery, on ships or in aircraft, and has undergone rapid development in automotive technology.
The development of automotive technology
While automotive electrics used to be a relatively straightforward field with car battery, alternator, starter, switches, relays, lamps, ignition, etc., electronics, computer technology and networking have been used for years. This is expressed in active and passive vehicle safety, accident avoidance, fuel economy, driver assistance, navigation, infotainment and driving comfort.
Increasing computerization and networking of individual systems has led to standardized bus systems, fieldbuses, which form the backbone of the In-Vehicle Network( IVN) with its communication structures and functional units. At the same time, more bandwidth is needed and real-time behavior with low latency is required. Since the requirements for specific functions are completely different, the Society of Automotive Engineers( SAE) has divided the various requirements into SAE classes and assigned corresponding fieldbuses to them.
The development of on-board networks
On- board networks in motor vehicles consist of several fieldbuses with different data rates for actuator and sensor data, for body and vehicle electronics, and for the drive and chassis. In addition, there are systems that are subject to increased safety requirements. These are implemented with redundant fieldbuses such as the Time Triggered Protocol SAE Class C( TTP/C) and FlexRay. Other bus and communication systems used in automotive technology are the LIN bus, the CAN bus, FlexRay, Low Voltage Differential Signaling( LVDS) and Automotive Ethernet.
In addition to the above-mentioned requirements, infotainment has established itself as a further field of communication that serves driving comfort. For these applications, there is the D2B bus, the MOST bus and the IEEE 1394 interface protocol known from computer technology with the IDB-1394.