Automotive Ethernet is a communication structure for automotive technology. Due to the increasing number of individual systems such as the vehicle electrical system, driver assistance systems, systems for infotainment and navigation, in short, due to the increasing use of computer-based systems and applications with minimum latency times, concepts are required with which these requirements can be realized.
Ethernet is such a communication infrastructure which, as Automotive Ethernet, meets these requirements and offers some advantages over conventional fieldbus systems such as CAN bus, LIN bus or FlexRay, especially as these concepts are designed for special applications.
Automotive Ethernet is the physical network with which the units and components in motor vehicles are interconnected. Single-Pair Ethernet( SPE) is a concept for automotive Ethernet that uses a single-pair twisted-pair cable that meets the stringent requirements for electromagnetic compatibility( EMC). Single-Pair Ethernet supports data rates between 10 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s with 10Base- T1, 100Base-T1 and 1000Base-T1. It thus offers a sufficiently large bandwidth and, thanks to Time Triggered Ethernet, has a low latency that corresponds to real-time behavior. Another approach to automotive Gigabit Ethernet is IEEE 802.3 1000Base-RH. The physical layer of automotive Ethernet operates full- duplex with pulse amplitude modulation (PAM3).
Ethernet is an extremely stable standard that has been developed over decades. The components have been field-proven over many years. In addition to single-pair Ethernet (SPE), there are Ethernet-based standards with extremely low latency and high availability in the form of AudioVideoBridging( AVB) and Time-Sensitive Networking( TSN). As far as data transport is concerned, automotive Ethernet uses the IP protocol as well as the TCP protocol and the UDP protocol. Other standard protocols used by Automotive Ethernet include the Address Resolution Protocol( ARP), the Internet Control Message Protocol( ICMP) and the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol( DHCP). Specific application protocols include Diagnostics over IP( DoIP) and Scalable Service-Oriented Middleware over IP (SOME/IP). And as far as interfaces are concerned, it is a matter of connecting systems such as Autosar, AVnu or from the Open Alliance properly according to the Automotive Ethernet standard.