During the assembly and manufacture of printed circuit boards, interruptions, bad solder joints and short circuits are the most common causes of faults, followed by component faults and component misalignment. These faults
make up about 80% of all faults that occur. All of these defects can be automatically detected by the AXI test (Automatic X-ray Inspection) with a probability of between 80% and 99%. The AXI test belongs to
thestructural tests and is an optical test procedure that works with X-rays and shines through the components and their connections. In combination with the in-circuit test, the defect detection rate for most assembly and soldering defects
can be increased to 90 % to 100 %, since the ICT test and the AXI test usefully complement each other. Only missing or defective non-electrical components are not detected.