An ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) is a user-specific or customer-specific integrated circuit. Unlike standard ICs, an ASIC is designed and manufactured according to customer requirements.
In the manufacture of integrated circuits( IC), design and manufacturing costs increase rapidly with increasing circuit complexity. On the other hand, however, some of the functions available in standard ICs are not needed by users. This dichotomy is solved by ASICs, which are designed and manufactured to meet customer requirements. ASICs are prefabricated integrated circuits made up of many standard logics that are linked together in an application-specific manner according to customer requirements. ASICs are manufactured in the same way as standard ICs, except for the final linking of the individual logics, which is done only after the customer project is available. There are linking techniques for one-time programmable and reprogrammable ASICs. In the case of one-time programmable ASICs, the interconnections are made by fusible micro-connections or by building up an interconnection in which insulating silicon becomes conductive through the inflow of charge.
The development of ASICs is directly related to that of microprocessors, since the function of the circuit is not determined by hardware alone, but by the software used. One is thereby substantially more flexible, has more degrees of freedom with the linkage of the logics and can by other programs ASICs fast to other customer requirements adapt.
ASICs can be configured as processors, memories, field programmable gate arrays( FPGA), and more. They are manufactured in small batches and can be produced relatively quickly due to prefabrication. The entry cost depends on the integration density of the chips and can be relatively high, while the production cost is relatively low.