In general, the sound image of
two stereo channels can be created by using either the time-of-flight differences between the left and right stereo channels or the sound level differences. XY stereophony is an intensity stereophony in which the different mono and stereo signals
are formed from the sound level differences. The recording technique is characterized by placing two cardioid microphones close to each other.
Since the distance between the two microphones can lead to phase shifts at high frequencies, the two microphone capsules should be placed in one housing. The directional patterns of the microphones are angled toward each other and point in different directions. The angle between the two directional characteristics can be between 0 degrees and 135 degrees, whereby a mono signal is generated at 0 degrees, since both microphone capsules receive and convert the same sound signal. The sound level difference of both microphone signals is used to determine the center and the two side signals.