The IEEE 802.3anworking group has standardized 10 Gigabit Ethernet over TP cables with RJ45 connectors: 10GBase-T. For this standard, some Ethernet typical criteria such as Ethernet frame and MAC interface retention, full duplex operation, transmission over a TP cable have been considered.
10GBase-T uses a 4-pair symmetrical copper cable with defined transmission characteristics up to frequencies of 500/625 MHz. This technology works over distances of up to 100 m with Cat 6a data cables, 55 m with Cat 6. DSQmodulation is used as the modulation method, a pulse amplitude modulation (PAM16) in which four bits are transmitted with one signal state. Autonegotiation ensures speed adaptation to other T-interfaces.
The requirements for near-end crosstalk( NEXT) and attenuation crosstalk ratio( ACR) are met by link class "E," so TP cables with category 6 (Cat 6a) extended to 500 MHz and category 7 for 10GBase-T are used. However, even with these cables, various factors such as insertion loss( IL), return loss( RL), near end crosstalk (NEXT) or equal level far end crosstalk( ELFEXT) affect transmission. 10GBase-T has a bit error rate of `10^-12` for all supported services and distances.
10GBase-T is an interesting approach for access points( AP) that need to be powered via a supply cable. The 10GBase-T standard did not initially support Power over Ethernet( PoE). It was not until the 802.3bt working group specified a solution over four wire pairs with 4PPoE.
10GBase-T forms the basis for 25GBase-T and 40GBase-T.