The International Electrotechnical Commission(IEC) has standardized charging connectors and charging modes for charging stations for charging electric vehicles with CCS charging system and other large mobile devices under the international standard IEC 62196-2. This standard has been adopted by DIN in Germany.
The charging plugs are about the load capacity and the connection technology. For example, no voltage may be applied to the charging plug until the electric vehicle is connected to the charging plug. This control is carried out via a plug pin, which acts as a signal conductor and also ensures that the electric vehicle cannot be put into operation during the charging process.
The currents specified in IEC 62196 depend on the type of current. For alternating current from 50 Hz to 60 Hz, a rated current of 250 A is specified for AC voltages up to 690 V, IEC 62196-2. For DC voltage, the rated current is 400 A for up to 600 V DC, IEC 62196-3.
IEC 62196 recognizes four operating modes for battery charging. These charging modes are specified in IEC 61851. Incharging mode 1, charging takes place slowly at household sockets with earthing contact and single- phase alternating current up to 16 A. Charging mode 2 is specified for single-phase and three-phase alternating current up to 32 A. Charging takes place slowly via household sockets and a protective earth conductor in the charging cable. Charging mode 3 is about fast charging with up to 250 A via a charging plug with signal conductor for electric vehicles, and charging mode 4 is about fast charging with up to 400 A.
IEC 62196-2 describes different charging plugs for the charging station and the electric vehicle. Type 1 is a single-phase charging plug with the specifications from SAE J1772, Type 2 is a single- and three-phase charging plug, and Type 3 is a single- and three-phase charging plug with a cap, according to the proposals of the EV Plug Alliance.